Category Archives: Research

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The Impact of Climate Change on Europe (Infographic)

The Impact of Climate Change on Europe (Infographic)

This useful infographic from the European Parliament provides some facts about the impact that climate change is projected to have on the continent of Europe.

Why not use it to spark a discussion about climate change in your ELT classroom?

Who was David in the Bible? - Finding out Information

Who was David in the Bible? – Finding out Information

Who was David in the Bible? – Finding out Information

Practice your research skills in English with this FREE printable worksheet (with answers) on the topic of David in the Bible. But who was David? Read the story of David in 1 Samuel 16:1-1 Kings 2:12. David was an extraordinarily successful warrior and king, who nevertheless fulfilled many different roles during his life.

40 of them are shown on the worksheet below. Match the letter of a person or place to a role, and write a Bible verse to support your answer. Note: some roles may match more than one person.

This worksheet is free and in the public domain, so please feel free to share it widely! This worksheet is taken from the FREE ELT Bible Study Pack #2. You can download it here.

If you have any feedback about this free resource, we’d love to hear from you! Please feel free to leave a comment or review below or on Facebook or Twitter.

Direct download: https://purlandtraining.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/22-Q-who-was-david.pdf

22-Q-who-was-david

Answers:

Direct download: https://purlandtraining.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/56-A-who-was-david.pdf

Who was David in the Bible? – Finding out Information – Answers

Image by Martin Völcker from Pixabay

Tips For Implementing Blended Learning (Infographic)

Tips For Implementing Blended Learning (Infographic)

Tips For Implementing Blended Learning (Infographic)

Blended learning is a term that describes a learning programme that mixes traditional classroom teaching with online opportunities, such as apps and digital resources.

Learn how to utilise blended learning in your classroom with this helpful FREE infographic from eLearning Infographics.

If you have any feedback about this free resource, we’d love to hear from you! Please feel free to leave a comment or review below or on Facebook or Twitter.

Tips For Implementing Blended Learning


Image by Yao Charlen from Pixabay

Adjectives that Describe Food

Adjectives that Describe Food

Adjectives that Describe Food

Check out this great list of English adjectives that describe food, courtesy of ESL Buzz.

 

Image: Pinterest

FREE Resource Pack for English - Holidays

FREE Resource Pack for English – Holidays

FREE Resource Pack for English – Holidays

Do you deserve a holiday? Are you dreaming about a relaxing break or hitting the beach? What about sightseeing in an exotic place? This pack could be the next best thing! Improve your English lessons immensely with our helpful FREE printable resource pack on the topic of Holidays.

Featuring great material to practice:

Vocabulary, English Idioms, Grammar, Tense Conversion, Verb Forms, Word and Sentence Stress, Speaking and Listening, Connected Speech… and much more!

This resource pack is completely free and in the public domain, so please feel free to share it widely!

If you like it, please share it with your friends on social media – and join us on Facebook!

Direct download: https://purlandtraining.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/holidays-complete-pack.pdf

FREE Resource Pack for English – Holidays

Image by Walkerssk from Pixabay

FREE Worksheet: 100 Words You Didn’t Know Were Adverbs

FREE Worksheet: 100 Words You Didn’t Know Were Adverbs

FREE Worksheet: 100 Words You Didn’t Know Were Adverbs

Improve your grammar skills in English with our helpful FREE printable worksheet (PDF) on the topic of adverbs.

Find out more about adverbs here!

This worksheet is free and in the public domain, so please feel free to share it widely!

If you like it, please share it with your friends on social media – and join us on Facebook!

Direct download: https://purlandtraining.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/100-words-you-didnt-know-were-adverbs-1.pdf

FREE Worksheet: 100 Words You Didn’t Know Were Adverbs

Image by Irina_kukuts from Pixabay

FREE Resource Pack for English - Creepy Crawlies

FREE Resource Pack for English – Creepy Crawlies

FREE Resource Pack for English – Creepy Crawlies

How much do you know about creepy crawlies? Are you scared of spiders? Fascinated by flies? Worried about worms? Boastful about bees? Improve your English lessons inordinately with our helpful FREE printable resource pack on the topic of Creepy Crawlies.

Featuring great material to practice:

Vocabulary, English Idioms, Tense Conversion, Verb Forms, Word and Sentence Stress, Speaking and Listening, Connected Speech… and much more!

This resource pack is completely free and in the public domain, so please feel free to share it widely!

If you like it, please share it with your friends on social media – and join us on Facebook!

Direct download: https://purlandtraining.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/creepy-crawlies-complete-pack.pdf

FREE Resource Pack for English – Creepy Crawlies

Image by OpenClipart-Vectors from Pixabay

Adventures in Connected Speech – Sorry Seems To Be The Hardest Word

Adventures in Connected Speech – Sorry Seems To Be The Hardest Word

Adventures in Connected Speech – Sorry Seems To Be The Hardest Word

If you like this post, please share it with your friends on social media – and join us on Facebook!


Before reading why not find out more about connected speech here.

Woduvaigada

If I came up to you and said ‘Woduvaigada?’, would you know what I meant?
What about if I added a main verb – an infinitive – afterwards: ‘Woduvaigada do?’
I’m guessing if you are a native speaker – if you have grown up listening to English your whole life – you will understand this phrase with a main verb:

‘Woduvaigada do?’

‘Woduvaigada say?’

However, if you are a learner of English – if you haven’t grown up with English as your main language – this lesson could help you. We’re talking about connected speech. The way that English speakers combine words in a sentence.

‘Woduvaigada do?’ = ‘What have I got to do?’ which becomes ‘What’ve I got to do?’

But how do we get a coherent sentence in English from a seemingly gibberish word? And why is it that a native speaker understands it – instinctively – while a non-native speaker may not?

The phrase ‘Woduvaigada do?’ comes from the first line of the original recording of the famous song by Elton John and Bernie Taupin, Sorry Seems to be the Hardest Word (1976), above. (Super Tip: hear the syllables in more detail by playing the video at half speed or lower; just click the gear and select: Speed > 0.5.)

Let’s break it down into syllables:

In the top line we see the actual words of the lyrics and in the bottom line the sounds made. I have written the sounds phonetically using Clear Alphabet[Click here for more about Clear Alphabet.]

When analysing a sentence we must:

i. separate the words into content words (important words) and function words (grammatical words): here ‘What’ and ‘do’ are content words

ii. make any possible contractions: ‘What’ and ‘have’ make the contraction ‘What’ve’

iii. identify the stressed syllable in each content word: each content word has only one syllable, so it is stressed

iv. identify the stressed vowel sound in the stressed syllables: ‘What’ has the short o sound, while ‘do’ has the long oo sound

v. reduce the function words to make them weaker and less obvious: this is where we end up with the unusual ‘word’ ‘woduvaigada’

(We should note that it is also possible to read the sentence as ‘What do I got to do’, which is not standard English grammar but rather a mix of: ‘What do I have to do?’ and ‘What have I got to do?’ We sometimes hear ‘What do I got to do’ as a slang form, particularly in American English.)

The sentence has four weak syllables, marked in grey below:

The aim for the speaker (or singer) is to go from ‘What’ to ‘do’ as quickly as possible. The last thing we should do is put an accent (stress) on every syllable: ‘What. Do. I. Got. To. Do?’ This sounds awful and makes the sentence very difficult for a native speaker to understand, since we are relying on the stressed vowel sounds to give us most of the meaning of the sentence:

What – do?

If I said simply ‘What – do?’ while pointing at myself (‘I’) the listener could probably understand what I meant. The message is ‘What do?’ or ‘What I do?’ From this we may understand ‘What must I do?’ The problem is that ‘What do?’ has to be expressed correctly in English grammar, either via present simple – ‘What do I have to do?’ – or via present perfect: ‘What have I got to do?’ Native speakers are so familiar with the forms of these tenses that we can skate over them very quickly, barely referencing them:

Learners of English have to study connected speech to be able to understand it and then use it as spoken English. The process is fairly simple and is laid out in detail here. I always tell students that it’s not rocket science. Now that would be hard! Remember that the goal in connected speech is to achieve vc or friendly sound connections between all syllables. In short, the sentence breaks down as follows:

Connection 1:

In this cv connection the consonant sound  t  moves forward to join the schwa sound at the beginning of the contraction ‘ve’. t  changes to d  (assimilation), because of the mid-Atlantic accent adopted by the singer

Connection 2:

In this cv connection the consonant sound  v  moves forward to join  ai  and form:  vai

Connection 3:

A vc connection is what we want, so we leave it

Connection 4:

Two of the same sounds meet:  t  and  t. The first sound –  t  – disappears (elision), and the second  t  changes to its matching sound  d. This is due to the mid-Atlantic accent adopted by the singer

Connection 5:   A vc connection is what we want, so we leave it

We further reduce weak syllables by substituting a schwa sound – the weak vowel sound in English – for any strong sounds. We do this here with the  a  of ‘have’ (changed to ‘ve’) and the  oo  of ‘to’. The  o  of ‘got’ becomes an  a, again because of the mid-Atlantic accent adopted by the singer.

So we end up with:

 

A. Wo – we clearly understand this as the question word ‘what’ – despite the missing ‘t’, because of the  w  sound, the strong vowel sound  o, and the fact it has one syllable. No other one-syllable question word has the strong vowel sound  o. The others all have different vowel sounds: ‘where’ has  eir, ‘when’ has  e, ‘why’ has  ai, and so on.

B. The second syllable contains the moved-forward t  from ‘What’ changed to  d, plus an             embedded schwa sound from the beginning of ‘ve’

C. ‘I’ remains a full ai  sound, with the  v  sound which moved forward in front

D. ‘got’ loses its ending sound, but it doesn’t matter because a similar sound d  follows (t  and  d  are matching sounds – the former unvoiced and the latter voiced). o  has changed to  a, as noted, above.

E. The vowel sound in ‘to’ is reduced to a schwa sound; t  changes to  d  due to a personal choice about accent (mid Atlantic) made by the singer

F. The second content word ‘do’ has a long full vowel sound and is accordingly stressed by the singer

What makes this sentence unusual is not ‘What’ + four weak syllables together but the way the artist sings them so fast to make them all fit into one beat of the song:

‘What’ve I got to’ has to fit into the same length beat as ‘do’, which ends up producing the unusual word ‘woduvaigada’, which is understood by native speakers, but may come across as babble – or just ‘too hard’ for non-native speakers. Further emphasis is added by each of the six syllables having the same note.

What are the takeaways from this lesson:

  1. Connected speech is a thing in English: we get most of the meaning of a sentence from the stressed vowel sounds: Wo – do. Learners of English have to actively learn about connected speech if they want to sound more natural and be less difficult to listen to. [You can learn about connected speech here.]
  2. Schwa sounds are real – and really common. If you don’t use them then you will be stressing far too many syllables in the sentence, making function words too prominent and losing much of the meaning (see 1. above).
  3. The point about this sentence is that the only two words that are important are: ‘What’ and ‘do’. You could put a variety of different function words in between them and the meaning wouldn’t change too much. The listener understands ‘What’ and ‘do’ and the rest could just as well be: ‘blah, blah, blah, blah’:

and so on. The main purpose of the middle bit is to make clear the subject – the ‘who’ of the question – ‘I’. The singer retains the full form of I – ai – rather than changing it to a schwa sound – perhaps as a way of stressing who the subject is amidst the muddle of syllables.

4. As well as the phrase ‘What have I got to…’ there are other similar structures to learn, which have multiple reduced function words. We use these unusual ‘words’ every day, so if you don’t know them, you could be missing out. If you can learn them it will be easier to listen to and understand people speaking English, for example:

and so on.

5. It’s also important to know common slang phrases (contractions) in English which represent function word phrases, because you will hear them a lot in spoken English. For example:

Not forgetting this truly epic sentence featuring no fewer than eight syllables with function words:


How other artists have treated the line:

Blue featuring Elton John (2002): ‘What I gotta do…?’:

Joe Cocker live (1992): ‘What’ve I got to…?’  then  ‘What do I got to…?’:

Nataly Dawn (2011): ‘What do I gotta do…?’:

Elton John live at the Royal Albert Hall (2002): ‘What’ve I got to do’, but very fast, almost staccato:


Image used by permission: By yabosidFlickr: Elton John, Live at Liseberg 8/7 1971, CC BY-SA 2.0, Link