**1.4.1** Numbers can be either cardinal or ordinal. Cardinal numbers are the normal numbers like 1 (one), 2 (two), 3 (three), and so on. We can write them in **words** (one) or **figures** (1). They tell us how many of something there are, e.g. ‘There are two people in the classroom’. They are also used to tell the time, e.g. ‘It was three o’clock’.

**1.4.2** Ordinal numbers are numbers like 1^{st} (first), 2^{nd} (second), 3^{rd} (third), and so on. They tell us the position of something, e.g. ‘I was the first person in the queue.’ They are also used for dates, e.g. ‘It was the second of July.’ We can write them in words (first) or figures (1^{st}). Ordinal numbers always end with ‘th’, apart from numbers with:

1, which end with ‘st’, e.g. 1^{st}

2, which end with ‘nd’, e.g. 2^{nd}

3, which end with ‘rd’, e.g. 3^{rd}

The exceptions are 11^{th}, 12^{th}, and 13^{th}, which always end with ‘th’. After the word **hundred** it is necessary to add ‘and’, e.g. 110 = one hundred and ten.

**1.4.3** In mathematics we use the following words and symbols:

**1.4.4** When it comes to learning how to **spell** numbers there is a lot of **repetition**. For example:

**eight** **eight**y-**eight**

**eight**een **eight** hundred and **eight**y-**eight**

twenty **eight** **eight** thousand, **eight** hundred and **eight**y-**eight**

**eight**y… **eight** million, **eight** hundred thousand and **eight**y-**eight**…

and so on.

This means that you only need to learn **29** vocabulary words to be able to spell all numbers, because all possible combinations can be made from them. These are the words to learn:

Exercises:

**Ex. 1.4.1** Spelling Fill in the gaps to spell a selection of numbers between 1 and 30:

- e i _ _ _ e e _
- _ _ e _ _ _ – e i _ _ _
- _ i _ e
- _ _ e _ _ _ – _ _ o
- _ i _ e _ e e _
- e _ e _ e _
- _ i _
- _ e _ e _
- _ _ e _ _ _ – _ _ _ e e
- _ _ i _ _ _
- _ i _ e
- _ _ e _ _ _ – _ o u _
- _ _ i _ _ e e _
- _ e _ e _ _ e e _
- o _ e
- _ _ o
- _ _ e _ _ _
- _ _ _ e e
- _ _ e _ _ _ – o _ e
- _ o u _
- _ e _
- _ _ e _ _ e
- e i _ _ _
- _ o u _ _ e e _

**Ex. 1.4.2** Reading Complete the sums below, writing your answers in words:

**Ex. 1.4.3** Reading Write the answers to the following sums in words:

- four plus ten equals ___________________________________
- twenty five plus three plus fourteen equals ___________________________________
- nine minus seven equals ___________________________________
- thirty two minus seventeen equals ___________________________________
- seven plus one minus five equals ___________________________________
- ten multiplied by eight equals ___________________________________
- four multiplied by fifteen equals ___________________________________
- thirty two divided by eight equals ___________________________________
- sixty divided by ten equals ___________________________________
- one hundred and twenty divided by four equals ___________________________________
- seven multiplied by three plus sixteen equals ___________________________________
- eighteen minus nine plus forty four equals ___________________________________
- five plus eleven equals ___________________________________
- sixteen plus nineteen plus eight equals ___________________________________
- forty five minus seven equals ___________________________________
- twenty two minus thirty one equals ___________________________________
- thirty seven plus four minus six equals ___________________________________
- twenty nine multiplied by five equals ___________________________________
- three multiplied by sixteen equals ___________________________________
- fifty five divided by five equals ___________________________________
- ninety divided by six equals ___________________________________
- one thousand one hundred divided by four equals ___________________________________
- forty multiplied by two plus four equals ___________________________________
- fifteen minus eight plus sixty equals ___________________________________

**Ex. 1.4.4** Spelling Complete the sentences by writing ordinal numbers (in words):

- October is the ________________ month of the year.
- January is the ________________ month of the year.
- April is the ________________ month of the year.
- March is the ________________ month of the year.
- September is the ________________ month of the year.
- June is the ________________ month of the year.
- May is the ________________ month of the year.
- February is the ________________ month of the year.
- December is the ________________ month of the year.
- July is the ________________ month of the year.
- November is the ________________ month of the year.
- August is the ________________ month of the year.

**Ex. 1.4.5** Spelling Complete each sentence using an ordinal number:

- A is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- P is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- E is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- X is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- L is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- T is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- O is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- M is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- F is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- G is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- K is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.
- R is the _________________________ letter of the alphabet.